How To Tell If A Female Is Infertile – Joel G. Brush, MD (OB/GYN), Oscar Oviedo Moreno, MD (OB/GYN), Sara Salgado, B.S., M.S.H. (Fertility Specialist), and Sandra Fernandez, B.S., M.S.H. (Fertility Consultant) .
Among the most common fertility tests for women today, you can find hysterosalpingography (GHS) or uterosalpingography, as well as other gynecological tests, which are described below. To check your fertility, if you notice the first signs that you cannot conceive.
How To Tell If A Female Is Infertile
If the cause of infertility is known then appropriate assisted reproductive treatments can be used to achieve pregnancy.
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Below is the 10-point index that we will cover in this article.
Fertility can happen in two ways. And for this reason, couples are advised to see a fertility specialist at the same time for fertility testing if pregnancy does not occur after 12 months of unsuccessful attempts. For women over 36 years old, this period is reduced to 6 months.
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To diagnose female infertility A fertility specialist will first interview the patient. Some basic tests were then performed:
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It is used to check the patient’s sex hormones and other hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle.
If the results of these tests change, your doctor may ask you to have additional tests. This includes endometrial biopsy and hysteroscopy. which will be described below.
Hormonal blood tests for female fertility are used to measure the levels of the main female sex hormones. This way we can detect the presence of endocrine problems that may affect your menstrual cycle. and leads to infertility in women The ultimate goal is to assess whether your ovaries and pituitary gland are working properly.
FSH, released by the pituitary gland, is responsible for stimulating the ovaries and follicular growth. A follicle is a structure that contains an egg.
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It is also produced by the pituitary gland. Its role is to regulate the menstrual cycle along with FSH. It rises sharply in the middle of the cycle (the LH surge) to stimulate ovulation.
It is released from the follicle that remains in the ovary after ovulation. This allows the endometrium to prepare for implantation of the embryo after fertilization of the egg.
The follicle in the ovary is responsible for its production, the level of AMH is proportional to the number of eggs. and thus it is used to measure ovarian reserve. It is usually measured on day 3-5, although it can be assessed at any point in the cycle. because the level does not change
Tests to measure FSH, estradiol, prolactin, and LH should be performed between the 3rd and 5th days of the cycle, that is, on the third and fifth days of the patient’s menstrual cycle. It is used to measure the values of these hormones on the first day of the cycle.
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A blood test may be needed to assess hormones such as TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), free thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), prolactin, and total testosterone. Although these are not sex hormones. But if the level of these hormones is above or below average. They can negatively affect the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle and ovulation in particular.
In the detection of these hormones, two blood tests are necessary: once at the beginning of the menstrual cycle and once at the end.
Testing is also recommended to detect sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and infectious diseases or viruses that can harm fertility.
The gynecologist can see the uterus and ovaries of the patient with the help of ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs or transvaginal. This gynecological examination serves two purposes:
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For this reason, gynecologists use a catheter covered with a condom and inject a lubricating gel through the vagina. The catheter sends out sound waves that allow the specialist to view the structures of the uterus and ovaries on a touch screen. Although the pressure of the catheter can cause some discomfort. But it should be clear that this test is completely painless.
You will probably also have a pap smear, a cytology test. The purpose of this test is to analyze a small amount of cells from the cervix, gently scraped with a curettage, to detect infections or cellular changes that may affect a woman’s fertility.
Hysterosalpingography or uterosalpingography This is a diagnostic test used to observe the structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes. as well as work through an X-ray (X-ray) using a liquid containing a dye
This is an important diagnostic test when evaluating a woman’s fertility. This is because the fallopian tubes are not clear enough, meaning that sperm cannot pass through the tubes, reach the egg and fertilize the egg. In addition, the presence of abnormalities in the anatomy of the uterus or tubes can prevent you from becoming pregnant.
Female Fertility Tests
To complete the HSG, the woman lies in the biopsy position on the examination table. and put a catheter through her cervix. The catheter contains an opaque substance that passes through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. The fluid easily exits the pelvic cavity. if there is no blockage
Hysterosalpingography can also be used to open the fallopian tubes through the passage of radiopaque dye, for this reason Some women can become pregnant naturally after undergoing HGH.
In addition to the diagnostic tests listed above, there are other fertility tests. For women who also need fertility testing, the most relevant ones are described below:
A karyotype is the set of chromosomes present in each cell. A person has a total of 46 chromosomes, of which 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes (autosomes) and 2 sex chromosomes (XX for women and XY for men).
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Karyotyping is one of the most important procedures in the fertility laboratory. This is a chromosomal analysis used to look for abnormalities that may affect fertility. Such abnormalities may be related to the number of chromosomes. (wrong number) or structure (Structural changes)
After all, cells that have a nucleus have chromosomes. This test can be done through a blood test. The cells to focus on are leukocytes (white blood cells) or lymphocytes.
This allows the entire wall of the uterus to be observed. In this way, the specialist can diagnose potential abnormalities of the uterus, such as polyps, fibroids or endometrial lesions, which cannot be clearly detected by ultrasound or ultrasound. Examination of the uterus
This gynecological test can be done by a doctor and involves the insertion of a thin inspection tool called a
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Through the vagina and cervix. For this, the doctor can observe the patient’s uterine cavity.
It also allows the specialist to see the entrance to the fallopian tubes. But it is impossible to insert an endoscope through it due to the reduced diameter.
This diagnostic test involves taking a sample of tissue from the innermost layer of the uterine cavity (such as the endometrium) and looking at it under a microscope to look for cell abnormalities.
The doctor will insert a small tube. Entering the uterine cavity to collect endometrial samples This outpatient procedure may be performed under local anesthesia or may not be performed in a doctor’s office.
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Gynecologist Sergio Rahel, Medical Director of IVF Spain, explains in detail all the diagnostic tests that are often performed on women who come to fertility clinics to study their fertility. As the doctor tells us:
Infertility means the inability to have children within one year. if it is assumed that the couple did not use contraceptives and engaged in sex From this moment the situation is no longer normal and it is necessary to consult a doctor. Of course, there are some special situations in which you should see your doctor before the end of the year. Frequently asked questions from users What are the main tests for female infertility?
GHS is a type of X-ray examination aimed at detecting the presence of pathology in the uterine cavity. and fallopian tube examination Initial evaluation of possible causes of infertility is recommended. It involves the introduction of a cannula to the entrance to the uterus with a special radiopaque material, a dye, inserted. Contrast dyes are added to cavities and ducts. A series of X-rays are then taken to check for possible abnormalities or blockages in various structures. This is a simple procedure that is usually done in the first 10 days of the cycle, during the show. Women may have menstrual-like symptoms. Hospitalization is not required. and duration from 15 to 30 minutes.
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