How You Know If You Have Stomach Cancer – Stomach cancer, also called stomach cancer, begins when tumors grow in the lining of the stomach. It usually affects people over 65 and is difficult to detect early. Smoking, stomach infections and eating salty or smoked foods can increase your risk. This guide will help you learn more about stomach cancer symptoms, causes, treatments and survival rates.
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How You Know If You Have Stomach Cancer
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Stomach cancer begins in the lining, the innermost layer of the stomach wall’s five layers. As it grows, it spreads to four other layers: submucosa, muscle, subserosa and serosa.
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The good news about stomach cancer is that rates are declining in the United States. This cancer accounts for only about 1.5 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year, according to the American Cancer Society.
Stomach cancer treatment depends on how far the cancer has spread. The right regimen can improve the quality of life and increase life expectancy.
Stomach cancer starts in the inner layer of the stomach wall and spreads to the outer layers as it grows.
People usually do not recognize the symptoms of stomach cancer early because they mistake them for symptoms of other health problems. Symptoms of stomach cancer are the same in men and women, although men are more likely to get the disease.
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There is no single first symptom of stomach cancer, but the first warning signs are usually gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, loss of appetite and stomach discomfort that lasts for several days.
“People don’t feel hungry anymore and end up losing weight without trying. That’s probably the most concerning symptom. Dr. Kevin El-Hayek, surgeon, Cleveland Clinic Source: Cleveland Clinic
Abnormal growth of cells in the lining of the stomach causes stomach cancer to develop. But each person has different risk factors that increase an individual’s risk of developing the disease.
The biggest risk factor for stomach cancer is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacterial infection, according to the Moffitt Cancer Center. Chronic infection can cause precancerous changes in the lining of the stomach.
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Some factors, such as age and gender, cannot be controlled. Others, such as lifestyle and diet, can be controlled.
“Having risk factors does not mean you will get cancer; having no risk factors does not mean you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you are at risk. Source: National Cancer Institute
High intake of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which can cause human cancer, is associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer.
Some foods, such as smoked meats, contain small amounts of NDMA. The environment and water also contain NDMA. Ingesting small amounts is not a problem for most people.
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“Low levels of NDMA are ingested in the diet, for example NDMA is present in food and water. These low levels would not be expected to cause an increased risk of cancer. However, higher levels of exposure may increase the risk of cancer. increase in humans Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
In recent years, NDMA contamination of several prescription drugs — including metformin, valsartan and Zantac (ranitidine) — has led to recalls.
In April 2020, the FDA demanded that all ranitidine products be removed from the market after discovering that NDMA levels in ranitidine increase over time, especially when stored at high temperatures.
A study published in 2021 by Gerald McGwin in Cancer “provided direct support for the claim that NDMA-contaminated ranitidine is associated with the occurrence of colon cancer.”
Early Warning Signs Of Stomach Cancer
Doctors use various tests to detect stomach cancer and see how far it has spread. How far the cancer has spread, or its stage, helps determine treatment options and survival rates.
During a biopsy, doctors remove a small amount of tissue for a specialist to examine under a microscope. This is the only sure way to diagnose cancer. A pathologist will look for abnormal cells in a sample of abdominal tissue to diagnose the disease.
During an endoscopy, doctors insert a thin, lighted tube called an endoscope into the mouth to examine the stomach and intestines. During the examination, the patient is under strong sedation.
During an endoscopy, the doctor can look for signs of cancer and take a tissue sample to send to the laboratory.
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Imaging tests use radiation, radio waves or magnetic fields to create images of the abdomen and internal organs to detect cancer and see how far it has spread.
Doctors use laparoscopy to find out if the cancer has spread to the pancreas or liver. During this minimally invasive surgery, the doctor inserts a thin, flexible, lighted tube called a laparoscope into the abdomen to look for tumors.
Stomach cancer prognosis is an estimate of a person’s chances of survival and how well treatment is likely to go. Many factors go into estimating a forecast. This includes the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer, the person’s age and general health.
“If the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of stomach cancer is 70%, it means that people with this cancer, on average, are 70% as likely to live as people who do not have that cancer.” at least 5 years after diagnosis Source: American Cancer Society
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Researchers use five-year survival rates derived from data in the National Cancer Institute database to determine prognosis. This data compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to the general population to see how likely someone is to live five years after a stomach cancer diagnosis.
About 90 to 95 percent of all stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas that start in the lining of the stomach.
Intestinal adenocarcinoma has an excellent prognosis and may respond to targeted therapy. Diffuse adenocarcinoma spreads more quickly and is more difficult to treat but is less common.
Most stomach cancers start in the innermost layer of the stomach wall called the mucosa. Doctors use the TNM system to diagnose stomach cancer.
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T stands for tumor, N stands for node and M stands for metastasis. Doctors assess how far the primary tumor has spread (T), whether the tumor has reached the lymph nodes (N) and whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (M). They then grade each tumor from Stage 0 to Stage IV according to the TNM system.
Early stage stomach cancer is still in the lining of the stomach. As it grows, it spreads to other layers of tissue and then out of the stomach.
The cancer has not spread beyond the mucosa and other layers of the stomach. It is also called carcinoma in situ.
A stage IA tumor has developed in the mucous membrane and may spread to the submucosa. At this stage, it has not spread to the lymph nodes.
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Stage IB tumors have spread to the mucosa, may spread to the submucosa, and may have spread to one or two lymph nodes.
Stage IV stomach cancer has spread to other distant parts of the body such as the lungs and lymph nodes and tissues lining the stomach wall.
Treatment options depend on the stage of stomach cancer. Each of them has its own side effects. Doctors may recommend a combination of treatments.
There may be few treatment options for advanced disease. The National Cancer Institute recommends enrolling in gastric cancer clinical trials.
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In the early stages of cancer, doctors can use a non-surgical technique called endoscopic mucosal resection. Doctors pass a flexible, lighted tube called an endoscope through the mouth and stomach to remove cancerous tissue or masses.
Doctors use surgery to cut the tumor from the stomach. Surgery is most effective in early stage cancer that has not spread.
In the early stage of stomach cancer, doctors perform a partial gastrectomy to remove part of the stomach and lymph nodes.
If the cancer has spread to the outer wall of the stomach, doctors may prescribe radiation and chemotherapy along with surgery. Depending on how far the cancer has spread, the doctor may perform a total gastrectomy, the removal of the entire stomach. This is a major surgery and can have serious side effects. Make sure you discuss
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