If Both Parents Are Carriers Of Sickle Cell Trait – Sickle cell disease is hereditary, meaning it runs in families. People with sickle cell anemia inherit two faulty hemoglobin genes called hemoglobin S – one from each parent.
A person has the sickle cell trait when the hemoglobin S gene is inherited from only one parent and the normal hemoglobin gene—hemoglobin A—is inherited from the other. People with sickle cell anemia are generally healthy.
If Both Parents Are Carriers Of Sickle Cell Trait
Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in beta globin genes that lead to a defective hemoglobin protein called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S changes flexible red blood cells into rigid, sickle-shaped cells. These sickle cells can block blood flow and cause pain and organ damage. Medical animation Copyright © 2022 Nucleus Medical Media, all rights reserved.
Solved Genetics Practice
If someone has sickle cell anemia, they are a carrier of the gene for hemoglobin S. This means they can pass it on when they have a child.
If a child’s other parent also has sickle cell anemia or another defective hemoglobin gene, such as beta (β) thalassemia, hemoglobin C, hemoglobin D, or hemoglobin E, that child is at risk for sickle cell anemia. This is because a child can inherit the faulty hemoglobin gene from either parent.
In the figure above, each parent has one normal gene for hemoglobin A and one gene for hemoglobin S, which means that each of their children has:
It is important to know that every time this couple has a child, the chance of that child developing sickle cell disease remains the same. In other words, if the first child has sickle cell disease, there is still a 25 percent chance that the second child will also have it. Both boys and girls can inherit sickle cell anemia, sickle cell anemia, or normal hemoglobin.
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If a person wants to know if they carry the sickle hemoglobin gene, a doctor can order a blood test to find out.
In the United States, most people with sickle cell disease are of African descent or identify as black.
Many people of Hispanic, Southern European, Middle Eastern, or Asian-Indian descent also have sickle cell anemia.
People who do not know whether they carry the defective hemoglobin gene can ask their provider for a blood test.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Couples who are planning to have children and know they are at risk of having a child with sickle cell anemia may want to make an appointment with a genetic counselor. A genetic counselor can answer questions about your risk and explain the options available.
Red blood cells with normal hemoglobin are disk-shaped and flexible, so they move easily through large and small blood vessels and carry oxygen throughout the body.
Sickle cell hemoglobin is not like normal hemoglobin. Sickle-shaped red blood cells are not flexible and can stick to artery walls, causing blockages that slow or stop blood flow. Abnormal hemoglobin can also cause stiff strands to form in red blood cells. These hard strands can change the shape of the cell, creating the sickle-shaped red blood cells that give the disease its name.
Sickle cells cannot supply oxygen to the rest of the body. This can cause attacks of sudden, severe pain called colic pain. These pains can appear without warning and the person who has them often needs to go to the hospital for effective treatment.
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Because sickle cells cannot change shape easily, they also tend to burst. Normal red blood cells live about 90 to 120 days, while sickle cells live only 10 to 20 days. The body is always producing new red blood cells to replace old cells. In sickle cell anemia, however, the body may have trouble keeping up with how quickly the cells are being destroyed. Because of this, the red blood cell count is usually lower than in people without sickle cell disease. This condition, called anemia, can cause a person to have less energy.
Figure A shows normal red blood cells flowing freely in a blood vessel. The inset image shows a cross-section of a normal red blood cell with normal hemoglobin. Figure B shows abnormal sickle-shaped red blood cells blocking blood flow in a blood vessel. The inset image shows a cross-section of a sickle cell with abnormal (sickle) hemoglobin forming abnormal rigid rods. “If both parents have sickle cell trait, what are the chances of their child developing sickle cell disease? “
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Each of their children should have about a 1 in 4 chance of developing sickle cell disease. Each of them will also have about a 1 in 2 chance of having sickle cell traits and a 1 in 4 chance of having none.
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Note that if you have four children, this does not mean that one will definitely have sickle cell disease. It may happen that none of them or all of them. Quotas apply to each child.
This works so that each parent with sickle cell trait has a 1 in 2 chance of passing it on. 1 in 4 comes from the fact that both parents have to pass on sickle cell to you before you get the full-blown disease.
So if both parents have it, the odds of both parents passing it on to you are 1 in 4. You basically multiply the two odds together to find out how often both things will happen. (1/2)(1/2) = 1/4.
I thought for the rest of the answer I would figure out where these numbers come from. As you will see, this has to do with the fact that people with sickle cell disease are carriers of sickle cell disease.
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People with sickle cell anemia have red blood cells that take on a crescent shape during exercise. This form cannot penetrate the small capillaries in our body, causing them to become clogged. This causes symptoms of sickle cell anemia.
In sickle cell anemia, the normal red blood cell donut shape can look more like a crescent. (Image: Wikimedia Commons)
Sickle cell anemia is a much less serious form of the disease. In this case, it takes really strenuous exercise to cause sickle cell disease. Therefore, athletes should be tested for this trait.
The reason red blood cells do this is because their hemoglobin isn’t working quite right. Hemoglobin carries oxygen into your cells and carbon dioxide away.
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In people with sickle cell anemia, part of the hemoglobin has a defect that causes the red blood cells to take on their unusual shape. In people with full sickle cells, all hemoglobin has this defect.
So where does the error come from? Well, the instructions for making hemoglobin can be found in something called DNA. Your DNA has complete instructions for building, maintaining and functioning your entire body.
These instructions are found in sections of DNA called genes. Each gene has instructions for a small part of you.
So there is a gene that allows you to digest the sugar in milk. There is another one that helps you determine your eye color. And another one with hemoglobin instructions. And so on.
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Often the errors are harmless, but sometimes they can cause problems. People with sickle cell anemia have a mutation in the hemoglobin gene that causes hemoglobin to become sickled.
So in people with sickle cell anemia and sickle cell anemia, we find copies of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease. But people with full-blown sickle cell anemia only have sickle copies, while people with sickle cell anemia have both donut and sickle copies. Where does this difference come from?
It turns out that we have two copies of most of our genes. We get one copy from mom and one copy from dad.
This means that the mother passes on half of her gene copies to her child, and the father passes on half of his. These two halves come together to form a complete person. Which copy of each gene each parent passes on is chosen at random.
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Individuals with sickle cell anemia received one working copy from one parent and one sickle cell from the other parent. People with sickle cell anemia have inherited sickle cell anemia from both parents.
This shows why each child in your case has a 1 in 4 chance of developing sickle cell disease. This is the probability that each parent submits their sick certificate.
In this case, both parents have sickle cell anemia. This means they have one functioning and one sickle cell copy of the hemoglobin gene.
Now, if they have children, each parent only forwards one of their two copies. This copy was chosen at random, with the following four options:
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In the first, both mother and father give the child a working copy (blue stick). This baby will not have sickle cell anemia or sickle cell anemia.
It also means that none of his or hers will have children
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