The Third President Of The United States – Photograph, print, drawing of Thomas Jefferson — Third President of the United States / Lithographed and published by H. Robinson, NY. & Washington, D.C.
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The Third President Of The United States
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Thomas Jefferson Third President Of United States Stock Illustration
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Portrait Of Thomas Jefferson Third President Of The United States High Res Stock Photo
Thomas Jefferson –Third President of the United States / H. Robinson, NY. & Published at Washington, DC. Thomas Jefferson, creator of democracy, American founding father who was the founder of the Declaration of Independence (1776). , and the third President of the United States (1801-1809).
When party strife was rising in 1800, Thomas Jefferson wrote in a private letter, “I have sworn on the altar of God that the mind of man has an eternal hostility to all forms of oppression.”
This powerful supporter of independence was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, in 1743, having inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land from his father, a planter and surveyor, and high social status from his mother, Randolph. He attended the College of William and Mary, then studied law. In 1772 he married a widow, Martha Wells Skelton, and took her to live in his partially built mountain home, Monticello.
Jefferson was shrewd and gray, rather tall and vague, as a journalist, but he was not a public speaker. In the Virginia House and the Continental Congress, he raised his pen to express the cause of patriotism. As a “silent member” of Congress, Jefferson, at 33, drafted the Declaration of Independence. In the following years he worked hard to make his words a reality in Virginia. In particular, he wrote a bill to establish religious freedom, which was enacted in 1786.
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Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1785. His sympathies with the French Revolution put him against Alexander Hamilton when Jefferson was Secretary of State in President Washington’s cabinet. He resigned in 1793.
A sharp political conflict arose, and two distinct parties, the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, began to form. Jefferson gradually took over the leadership of the Republicans, who sympathized with the revolutionary cause in France. Opposing federalist policies, he opposed a strong central government and supported states’ rights.
As the unpopular candidate for president in 1796, Jefferson came within three votes of the election. Through a defect in the constitution, he became vice president, even though President Adams was his opponent. In the 1800s, the defect created a more serious problem. Republican voters, seeking to nominate a president and vice president from their own party, produced a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives passed a resolution. Hamilton disliked both Jefferson and Burr, but nevertheless insisted that Jefferson be elected.
When Jefferson took the presidency, the crisis in France was over. He cut spending on the Army and Navy, reduced the budget, abolished the whiskey tax so popular in the West, but cut a third of the national debt. He also sent a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates who were harassing American trade in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, although there was no provision in the Constitution for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson pressed his constitutional weakness when he had the opportunity to acquire the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803.
Thomas Jefferson (1743 1826), Third President Of The United States, Stock Photo, Picture And Rights Managed Image. Pic. Gsv Jtv004926
During Jefferson’s second term, he was more concerned with preventing the nation from participating in the Napoleonic wars, although both England and France interfered with the neutral rights of American traders. Jefferson’s attempted solution, an embargo on American shipping, worked poorly and was not popular.
Jefferson retired to Monticello to consider plans for his grand design for the University of Virginia. A French gentleman observed that he placed his house and his mind “on a high state, from which he could contemplate the universe.”
The presidential biographies are from “The Presidents of the United States of America,” by Frank Friedel and Haigside. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Society.
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