What Happens To Humans When They Get Rabies

What Happens To Humans When They Get Rabies – After exposure to the virus, symptoms can take anywhere from a few days to a year, with the average time in humans ranging from 1 to 12 weeks. The time depends on how long it takes for the virus to travel from the wound site to the brain before symptoms begin. This depends on several factors, including the site of infection (distance from the brain), how far the virus has penetrated the body, and the size of the infected person (or animal). Therefore, if an adult male is bitten on the leg, the time to symptoms may be longer than if a small child is bitten on the face.

The initial symptoms of rabies are flu-like, with fever, headache, and general malaise. As the disease progresses, a person may experience delusions, abnormal behavior and hallucinations, as well as the infamous hydrophobia and foaming at the mouth (due to paralysis of the swallowing muscles). However, it is important to note that the symptoms of rabies can vary widely, meaning that not every person will experience all (or even many) of the symptoms.

What Happens To Humans When They Get Rabies

Symptoms of rabies in animals are similar, behavior changes (either aggressive, or a wild animal becomes subdued and calm, or a calm animal becomes aggressive), paralysis or partial paralysis in most cases, abnormal sounds (dogs barking strangely), animals attack. inanimate objects (for example, chewing stones or trees), hydrophobia and foaming at the mouth, etc. However, it is more difficult to diagnose rabies in animals without a laboratory test, because the symptoms can vary greatly from case to case. One thing is certain, all cases of rabies will be fatal once symptoms appear.

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Symptoms indicate the disease in humans. People can more accurately describe their symptoms (how they feel, what the disease looks like, what’s going on with the disease) to medical professionals, while veterinarians have to rely on the animal’s signs. cannot accurately describe how he feels and what can happen when the disease occurs. Rabies is caused by infection with the rabies virus or other viruses of the lyssavirus family, including bats. Rabies is a viral disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) that can be fatal if not treated in time. Rabies is usually transmitted through the bite or scratch of an infected animal, such as dogs, cats, bats, foxes, raccoons, skunks, wolves, monkeys, and mongooses. Rabies can also be contracted through broken skin contact or organ transplants. The rabies virus is found in the saliva of infected animals, and most cases of rabies develop from a bite or scratch from a wild animal through a broken skin.

Rabies can also occur when an animal licks abraded or broken skin or the eyes, nose or mouth, although this is rare. There have also been rare cases of bats contracting rabies, not through direct contact, but through people visiting caves inhabited by rabid bats, leading to the idea that rabies could be transmitted through airborne particles.

In the United States, rabies is commonly transmitted by bats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, and skunks. The vast majority of rabies cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur among wild animals such as raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. Each year in the United States, about 120,000 or more animals are tested for rabies, and about 6 percent are infected. The proportion of positive animals is highly dependent on the animal species and ranges from 10% of wild species.

Stray dogs are more likely to transmit rabies to humans in developing countries in Africa, Central and South America, and Southeast Asia. There are about 15,000 cases of rabies worldwide each year.

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In humans, the first symptoms of rabies are similar to those of many other diseases, including fever, headache, and general weakness or malaise. As the disease progresses, more specific symptoms appear, which may include insomnia, restlessness, confusion, mild or partial paralysis, agitation, hallucinations, anxiety, hypersalivation (increased salivation), difficulty swallowing, and hydrophobia (fear of water). Death usually occurs a few days after the onset of these symptoms.

Once a person begins to develop signs and symptoms of rabies, the disease is almost always fatal. A rabies infection has been established that results in death within 10-14 days. Only 2 surviving cases of clinical rabies have been reported. But before that, the treatment is very effective. There is also a vaccine for people at risk of infection. For this reason, anyone at risk of rabies should receive the rabies vaccine to protect them.

When you are abroad in an area where rabies is known, you should not pet or play with animals. Avoid contact with stray animals, including cats and dogs.

If you are traveling to a country where there is a risk of the rabies virus, consult your doctor. You may benefit from a rabies vaccine, human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV).

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The first symptoms are tingling, itching or a feeling of cold at the bite site, and within a few days this turns into symptoms of brain dysfunction, restlessness, confusion, anxiety. This may be followed by a slight fever and general malaise. These early symptoms of rabies can be very similar to those of the flu, including general weakness or malaise, fever, or headache. These symptoms may last for several days. This is usually followed by tremors, difficulty swallowing, restlessness, abnormal behavior (such as anger or hyperactivity), drooling, and severe muscle spasms. As the disease progresses, a person may experience delusions, abnormal behavior, hallucinations, and insomnia. Seizures and paralysis may also occur. Rabies is also called hydrophobia (fear of water) because it causes painful muscle spasms in the throat that prevent swallowing.

Symptoms can begin 9 to 90 days after being bitten by an infected animal, but it usually takes at least a month for symptoms to appear.

The acute period of the disease usually ends after 2-10 days. Once clinical signs of rabies appear, the disease is almost always fatal, and treatment is usually supportive.

The first symptoms of rabies can be very similar to the flu and can last for several days:

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Once symptomatic, rabies is almost always fatal. In such cases, treatment will be aimed at making the person as comfortable as possible.

Prevention of the disease includes the administration of passive antibodies, both by injection of human immunoglobulin and by injection of rabies vaccine.

Once a person begins to show symptoms of the disease, survival is rare. Fewer than 10 documented human survivors of clinical rabies have been reported to date, and only two did not receive pre- or post-exposure prophylaxis.

Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. The virus spreads through the saliva of sick animals. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or human. Rarely, rabies can be transmitted when infected saliva enters an open wound or mucous membranes such as the mouth or eyes. This can happen if an infected animal licks your skin incisions.

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Any mammal (an animal that nurses its young) can transmit the rabies virus. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to humans include:

Rarely, the virus is transmitted from an infected organ to tissue and organ transplant recipients.

Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with non-segmented, negative-stranded RNA genomes. In this group, viruses with a distinctive “bullet” shape belong to the family Rhabdoviridae, which includes at least three genera of animal viruses, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, and Vesiculovirus. The genus Lyssavirus includes rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, European bat virus 1 and 2, and Australian bat virus.

Rhabdoviruses are about 180 nm long and 75 nm wide. The rabies genome encodes five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and polymerase (L). All rhabdoviruses have two main structural components: a helical ribonucleoprotein (RNP) core and an envelope surrounding it. In the ribonucleoprotein core, genomic RNA is tightly surrounded by nucleoproteins. Two other viral proteins, a phosphoprotein and a large protein (L-protein or polymerase), are associated with the ribonucleoprotein core.

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The glycoprotein consists of about 400 trimeric spikes that are tightly packed on the surface of the virus. The M protein binds to both the envelope and the ribonucleoprotein core and may be the central assembly protein of the rhabdovirus. The basic structure and composition of the rabies virus is shown in the longitudinal diagram below.

Rabies is an RNA virus. The genome encodes 5 proteins, designated N, P, M, G and L. The order and relative size of the genes in the genome is shown in the figure below. The arrangement of these proteins and the RNA genome determine their structure

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