Who Is The Fifth President Of The United States – James Monroe was the fifth president of the United States (1817-1825) and the last founding president.
At his last annual reception at the White House on New Year’s Day, 1825, President James Monroe made a delightful impression of a Virginia lady who shook hands with him:
Who Is The Fifth President Of The United States
“He was tall and well-proportioned. His clothes were simple and old-fashioned…his demeanor was quiet and dignified. Judging by his candid, honest expression…I think he deserves the praise given by the great Jefferson,” Monroe said. Honestly, if you turn his soul out of it, there won’t be any stains. “
Who Was The 5th President?
Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, in 1758, Monroe attended the College of William and Mary, excelled in the Continental Army, and practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia.
As a young statesman, he joined the Anti-Federalists in the Virginia Convention that ratified the Constitution, and was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1790 as an advocate of Jefferson’s policy. As French minister from 1794-1796, he showed strong sympathy for the French cause. Later, along with Robert R. Livingston, he helped negotiate the Louisiana purchase.
His ambition and energy, coupled with the support of President Madison, made him the Republican presidential nominee in 1816. With little opposition from the Federalists, he easily won re-election in 1820.
Monroe made unusually strong cabinet choices, appointing Southerner John Calhoun as Secretary of War and Northerner John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State. Only Henry Clay’s refusal prevented Monroe from joining a prominent Westerner.
James Monroe, 1758
Early in his administration, Monroe went on a journey of goodwill. In Boston, his visit was hailed as the beginning of the “era of the good feeling.” Unfortunately, these “good feelings” did not last long, despite the nationalist policies of the undiminished Monroe.
On the surface of nationalism, ugly cross-sectional cracks have emerged. When the people of the Missouri Territory failed to apply to join the Union as a slave state in 1819, a painful economic depression undoubtedly added to their panic. An amendment bill to phase out slavery in Missouri has sparked two years of heated debate in Congress.
The Missouri Compromise settled the struggle, connecting Missouri as a slave state with the free state of Maine, and permanently banning slavery in northern and western Missouri.
In foreign affairs, Monroe announced basic policies bearing his name in response to threats that Europe’s more conservative governments might try to help Spain retake its former Latin American colonies. It wasn’t until 1822 that Monroe began to formally recognize the two young sister republics, as he noted that Congress would vote on appropriations for the diplomatic corps. He and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams hoped to avoid trouble with Spain until it ceded Florida in 1821.
James Monroe (april 28, 1758
Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed the reconquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join the proclamation of “letting go.” Former presidents Jefferson and Madison advised Monroe to accept the offer, but Secretary Adams suggested, “It is more sincere to declare our principles unequivocally to Russia and France than to come in like a dinghy after the British men of war.”
Monroe took Adam’s advice. He warned that not only must Latin America be left alone, but Russia must not encroach on the south on the Pacific coast. “…the American continent,” he said, “the free and independent states assumed and maintained by them should not be regarded by any European power as the object of future colonization.” Some 20 years after Monroe’s death in 1831, This is called the Monroe Doctrine.
The biography of the president above is from The President of the United States of America by Frank Friedel and Hugh Siddy. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Society. The fifth U.S. president, James Monroe (1758-1831), oversaw America’s Great Western expansion, and in 1823 supported U.S. foreign policy with the Monroe Doctrine, warning European nations against further colonization and intervention in the Western Hemisphere.
Monroe was a Virginian who fought against the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775-83) before embarking on a long political career. A disciple of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Monroe was a delegate to the Continental Congress and served as a U.S. senator, governor of Virginia, and minister in France and England. In 1803, he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the United States. As president, he acquired Florida and dealt with the contentious issue of slavery in the new state, which was added to the Union by the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
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James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758 in Westmoreland County, Virginia, to farmers and carpenters Spencer Monroe (1727-74) and Elizabeth Jones Monroe (1730-74) ). In 1774, at the age of 16, Monroe entered the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1776, he discontinued his university studies, joined the Continental Army, and fought for independence from Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775-83).
Did you know? Monrovia is the capital of the West African country of Liberia, named after James Monroe. As president, Monroe supported the American Colonial Society’s work in Liberia to build homes for freed African slaves.
During the war, Monroe saw action in battles in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In 1776 he was wounded at the Battle of Trenton, New Jersey, and during the harsh winter of 1777-78 he was with General George Washington (1732-99) and his troops at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
While serving in the military, Monroe met Thomas Jefferson, the governor of Virginia at the time. In 1780, Monroe began studying law with Jefferson, who later became his political mentor and friend. (More than a decade later, in 1793, Monroe purchased a farm called Highland, which was located next to Jefferson’s Monticello estate in Charlottesville, Virginia.)
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After serving in the military, Monroe embarked on a political career. In 1782, he became a representative to the Virginia Assembly, and the following year he was elected to serve as Virginia’s representative to the Federal Assembly, the governing body of the United States from 1781 to 1789.
In 1786, Monroe married Elizabeth Courtwright (1768-1830), the teenage daughter of a New York businessman. The couple had two daughters and a son who died in infancy.
While in Congress, Monroe supported the efforts of fellow Virginian (and future fourth U.S. president) James Madison (1751-1836) to create a new U.S. Constitution. Once written, however, Monroe argued that the document gave the government too much power and did not adequately protect individual rights. Despite Monroe’s objections, the Constitution was ratified in 1789 and won a seat in the U.S. Senate in 1790, representing Virginia.
As a senator, Monroe sided with Madison, then U.S. Congressman, and Jefferson, then U.S. Secretary of State, both of whom opposed increased federal control at the expense of state and individual rights. In 1792, Monroe joined the two in founding the Democratic-Republican Party, which opposed Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) and the Federalists, who fought for increased federal power.
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In 1794, President George Washington (1732-99) appointed Monroe Minister of France to help improve relations with the country. At the time, France and Great Britain were at war. Monroe had some initial success in strengthening French-American relations. But relations between the two countries deteriorated with the signing of the disputed Jay Treaty in November 1794, an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to regulate trade and navigation. Monroe, who was critical of the treaty, was fired by Washington in 1796.
Monroe resumed his political career after becoming governor of Virginia in 1799. He held the position for three years until President Thomas Jefferson asked Monroe to return to France to help negotiate the purchase of the Port of New Orleans. In France, Monroe learned that French leader Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) wanted to sell the entire Louisiana territory (land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains and the Gulf of Mexico to today’s Canada), not only New Orleans alone, $15 million.
Monroe and the U.S. Secretary to France, Robert R. Livingston, did not have time to get presidential approval for such a large purchase. Instead, they ratified and signed the Louisiana Purchase Agreement in 1803, effectively doubling the size of the United States.
Monroe, credited for buying Louisiana, later became British minister and drafted a treaty that helped strengthen Anglo-American relations. Jefferson, however, did not ratify the treaty because it did not prevent Britain from capturing American sailors for its own navy. Monroe was outraged by Jefferson’s actions, and his friendship with Jefferson and his Secretary of State Madison deteriorated.
James Monroe (westmoreland County 1758
In 1808, Monroe, still angry at the way Jefferson and Madison handled his treaty, ran for president against Madison. He lost. However, the unhappiness between the two did not last long. In 1811, Madison invited Monroe, who was again governor of Virginia, to serve as his secretary of state. Monroe agreed and was proven to be
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