Who Is The First President Of Kenya – October 1945: Jomo Kenyatta, Kenyan politician and later the first President of the Republic of Kenya, at the Pan African Congress in Manchester, England. picture
In 1938, Jomo Kenyatta, who later became Kenya’s first president, published a collection of articles detailing Gekyu cultural and historical traditions. This is a lightly edited excerpt
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The Gikuyu country, whose system of tribal organization will be described in this book, is in central Kenya. It is divided into five administrative districts: Kemu, Fort Hall (Moringa), Nyeri, Embo and Meru. Its population is about one million. Due to the separation of agriculture and pastoralism, about 110,000 Gekyu live in various districts of Kenya, mostly on scattered farms in Europe. The rest of the population lives in Gikuyu reserves and towns. The Gikuyu people are agricultural people; They keep large herds of sheep and goats, and to a lesser extent cattle, because their social organization requires a constant stock for various purposes, such as “marriage insurance”, payments, sacrifices, meat feasts, magical ceremonies, Purification ceremony. , and as a means of providing clothing to the community.
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The cultural and historical traditions of the Gikuyu people have been passed down orally from generation to generation. As a geek myself, I’ve had this in my head for years, because people with no written record do librarianship. Without a notebook or diary to jot down notes, the African learns to make drawings on his mind that he can recall whenever he wants. Throughout his life he had a great commitment to memory, and the stories he was told and the events that happened before his eyes helped the boy to form an indelible mental image of his early education. Create a picture. Various competitions are held for members of different ages at each stage of life, to test their ability to remember and relate songs, dances and events that have been told to them, and this Such events create a public audience to judge and correct. Parents and common rivals.
Like any other Gikuyu child, I received the liberal education of my country in my youth, but there was no apparent need for writing while living among my relatives. But during my anthropological studies and travels to various countries in Europe, I had the opportunity to meet men and women who were eager to hear about the African way of life. Then I felt the need to present in black and white the knowledge that had hitherto been in my head for the benefit of Europeans and Africans. Having no training in comparative social anthropology before starting the work, I realized the difficulty I would face and accordingly tried to acquire the technical knowledge necessary to record scientific data. Find ways and means to do it.
It was my friend and teacher, Professor Bronislaw Malinowski, who made it possible for me through the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, and I would like to thank him for his great help and encouragement in the study and arrangement. . . About my literature I would like to thank many friends, European and African, who have read and discussed parts of my manuscript and expressed their honest opinions about it. His criticisms and suggestions are helpful. Dr. I am grateful to Raymond Firth for his careful reading of the manuscript and technical advice on humanities issues. and to my brother Mogai for photographing the initiation ceremony and checking information on ceremonial matters; And to my father and the other fathers who helped him.
I am also grateful to my enemies, whose encouragement encouraged me to continue my work. May they have long life and health to continue the good work!
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– To the members of the Gikuyu Central Community, my past, present and future friends. His cooperation, courage and sacrifice in the service of the people of Gekio has been an inspiration and sustaining force in this work as in all our other works.
In the present work I have endeavored to record the facts known to them, especially in the life of personal experience, and I have been much restrained from a sense of political grievance that the advanced African cannot experience. My main purpose is not to engage in controversial discussions with those who have tried or are trying to explain the same things from an outsider’s perspective, but to let the facts speak for themselves. I know there are many scientists and general readers who would appreciate the opportunity to hear the views of Africans, and I am happy to be of service to all of them.
At the same time, I am well aware that I cannot do justice to this subject without offending the “African business friends” who are ready to maintain their friendship forever as a sacred duty, but only Africans will continue. Play the role of an ignorant savage so that they can monopolize the office of explaining his mind and speaking for him. For such people, an African writing such a study is a violation of their protection. He is a hunter turned donkey.
But the Afghan is not blind. He can recognize these devotees for good, and he appears in different parts of the continent that a flowing river cannot be stopped without breaking its bounds forever. His power of expression is stifled, but it breaks through and soon he will destroy the protection and repression that surrounds him.
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Readers will undoubtedly want to know who I am behind writing the book. Just being born and raised in Gikuyu country may seem like a vague qualification, so I will be more specific about my source of knowledge.
I said that as a boy the usual education and relationships of Gikuyu boys and the chapters on government and customs and traditions elsewhere in the book are some of the things I learned from my father during my early training. , and then interacted with my youth as an evening entertainment. Kinship terms are ones that I have heard and used among my relatives over the years. As my grandfather and father were polygamists, I was born into a large group of relatives with many degrees of relationship.
According to tribal tradition, I had to go through several stages of initiation with my age group.
, and therefore can speak from personal experience of ceremonies and rituals. Although the men do not witness the physical operation of the girls, they are not ignorant of its details, for the young men of both sexes talk freely with each other after initiation. In addition, a driver came to my aunt, Waco, and as a child, I naturally picked up the details of the process by listening to conversations between her and the other women.
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I participated in my age group activities and was selected as a leader. Later, because of my knowledge of the outside world, I generally took a leading part in Gikuyu’s progressive movements and still hold that position. As the General Secretary of the Gikuyu Central Association, I started and edited the first Gikuyu journal.
In 1928-1930. This gave me the opportunity to travel all over Gikuyu and meet many old and young people, with whom I discussed cultural, political, social, religious, educational and various other aspects.
), and this enabled me to attend elders’ conferences and learn about their practices in different parts of Gikuyu country. As a member of the warrior class, I not only had a practical knowledge of Gikuyu fighting methods, but lived in Maasai country near the town of Narok, where I learned a lot about Maasai military methods. Visited many other tribes as well.
In the case of witchcraft, I have witnessed many witchcraft rituals being performed in my home and other places. My grandfather was a seer and magician, and while traveling with him and carrying his tools, I received a sort of education in the principles of the art. In addition, I live in a place called Gattori in central Gikuyu, a district famous for its magical practices, and have come into contact with many witches or wizards there.
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